POLYPLOIDS IN SHELLFISH AQUACULTURE
Polyploids are organisms carrying more than two sets of chromosomes, which is the normal (diploid) condition of most animals. Humans, for example, are diploid, with each individual inheriting one set of chromosomes from their mother and one from their father. The shellfish aquaculture industry has embraced the cultivation of triploid shellfish, which have three sets of chromosomes, because of their superior flesh quality, compared to that of diploid shellfish, during the normal reproductive season. An added benefit, from the point of view of sustainable aquaculture, is that triploids are effectively reproductively sterile, so that triploid crops have little or no genetic interaction with natural populations. The key to producing triploid shellfish efficiently and effectively is to develop tetraploid male stocks, which, when crossed to a normal diploid female stock, produces all triploid offspring.
All-triploid Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea Gigas Thunberg) Produced by Mating Tetraploids and Diploids
Guo, X.M., G. A. DeBrosse, and S. K. Allen. 1996. All-triploid Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) produced by mating tetraploids and diploids. Aquaculture 142:149-161.
Estimation of Preferential Pairing Rates in Second-Generation Autotetraploid Pacific Oysters (Crassostrea Gigas)
Curole, J. P., and D. Hedgecock. 2005. Estimation of preferential pairing rates in second-generation autotetraploid Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). Genetics 171:855-859.
This is the first and only genetic analysis ever made of meiosis in tetraploid shellfish.
Farming Triploid Oysters
Nell, J. A. 2002. Farming triploid oysters. Aquaculture 210:69–88.
Field Observations on Growth, Gametogenesis and Sex Ratio of Triploid and Diploid Mytilus Edulis
Brake, J. W., J. Davidson, and J. Davis. 2004. Field observations on growth, gametogenesis and sex ratio of triploid and diploid Mytilus edulis. Aquaculture 236:179-191.
Maturation, Spawning, and Fecundity of the Farmed Pacific Geoduck Panopea Generosa in Puget Sound, Washington
Vadopalas, B., J. P. Davis, and C. S. Friedman. 2015. Maturation, spawning, and fecundity of the farmed Pacific geoduck Panopea generosa in Puget Sound, Washington. Journal of Shellfish Research 34:31-37.
Optimal Chemical Triploid Induction in Geoduck Clams, Panopea Abrupta, by 6-Dimethylaminopurine
Vadopalas, B., and J. P. Davis. 2004. Optimal chemical triploid induction in geoduck clams, Panopea abrupta, by 6-dimethylaminopurine. Aquaculture 230: 29-40.
Polyploid Fish and Shellfish: Production, Biology and Applications to Aquaculture for Performance Improvement and Genetic Containment
Piferrer, F., A. Beaumont, J-C Falguière, M. Flajšhans, P. Haffray, and L. Colombo. 2009. Polyploid fish and shellfish: Production, biology and applications to aquaculture for performance improvement and genetic containment. Aquaculture 293:125–156.
Viable Tetraploids in the Pacific Oyster (Crassostrea Gigas Thunberg) Produced by Inhibiting Polar Body in Eggs from Triploids
Guo, X.M., and S. K. Allen. 1994. Viable tetraploids in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg) produced by inhibiting polar body in eggs from triploids. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 3:42–50